Allosteric Enzymes | 7 Important Points

1. Allosteric enzymes are proteins that regulate the activity of other enzymes.

Allosteric enzymes are proteins that regulate the activity of other enzymes. These proteins are called allosteric enzymes because they hold the function of other proteins.

Allosteric enzymes can be thought of as like relief valves. In other words, they are much more potent than their un-allocated weight and are not affected by external events (such as temperature and pH changes) that usually alter them.

This is very useful for drugs and for specific diseases where we need to keep an enzyme out of the system to treat the disease or where we want a prescription to be active but not affect normal functioning (for example, insulin).

2. Allosteric enzymes are found in all body tissues.

A molecule must engage or interact with an allosteric site to become an allosteric enzyme. When the molecule interacts with a specific allosteric site, it will somewhat regulate itself. The enzyme may not be able to affect other areas in the receptor but will still similarly restrict its activity.

When it comes to allosteric enzymes are found throughout the body. For example, an enzyme that works explicitly on cholesterol when it comes into contact with a specific receptor in the membrane of cells is called apolipoprotein B (ApoB). This receptor is found on cells that store cholesterol and decrease its movement into other parts of the cell.
The function of this enzyme isn’t completely understood; however, it has been implicated in many disorders such as atherosclerosis and atheroma (acute fatty changes).

3. Allosteric enzymes contribute to the regulation of metabolism.

A subset of this family of enzymes is the allosteric enzymes expressed in the liver, small intestine, brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle. The allosteric enzyme regulates the absorption and release of insulin — an important hormone. It is involved in regulating glucose metabolism in the body but has not received as much attention as other enzymes such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC).

Allosteric Enzymes | 7 Important Points

4. Allosteric enzymes are involved in the control of gene expression.

Allosteric enzymes are involved in the control of gene expression. Once, they were thought to be only involved in certain types of protein synthesis. Still, recent studies have demonstrated that allosteric processes may be involved in regulating other enzymatic reactions. Allosteric enzymes are implicated in many biological processes, including cell division and differentiation, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, and post-transcriptional control.

5. Allosteric enzymes play a role in signal transduction.

Allosteric enzymes are low-molecular-weight proteins with specific binding sites at the carrier protein. If a molecule binds to this site, it can be more easily transported across cell membranes. Because of their vast assortment of biological functions, allosteric enzymes play an essential role in signal transduction pathways.

In plants, for example, certain allosteric enzymes are responsible for transporting water and nutrients across their plasma membrane. The plants’ ability to capture the sun’s energy through photosynthesis allows them to survive when water is scarce, or plants cannot obtain food. Because a single allosteric enzyme is responsible for both these functions, plants have various high-affinity transport systems that allow them to manage water and nutrient availability in different conditions.

To function effectively, however, they must bind differently to the same receptor in different states of the plant’s life cycle or growth cycle (e.g., during seed germination or fruit ripening).

For example, one allosteric enzyme can bind specifically with sugars (i.e., glucose) and other nutrients (e.g., boron). This is because the environment surrounding each sugar molecule changes as these molecules move through their cell membranes in response to environmental factors (e.g., temperature).

Since these environmental factors do not change when the sugar molecule moves from one compartment to another within the cell, it is necessary for an allosteric enzyme that binds specifically with glucose and boron molecules for them to be transported across cells without being destroyed by cellular metabolism while they are within their respective compartments.

Because they can bind at so many different sites on their target protein molecules, allosteric enzymes can also affect other proteins’ functions as well as play a role in regulating secondary messengers (i.e., cAMP), ion channels, and voltage-sensitive channels (i.e., calcium channels), phospholipid metabolism (i.e., phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) and hormone release systems (i.e., steroid hormones).

Enzyme-Substrate Complex | 7 Important Points

6. Allosteric enzymes are essential in the regulation of enzyme activity.

The allosteric enzyme is frequently misunderstood as a generic term for an enzyme regulated by an “allosteric” molecule.

Allosteric refers to a specific group of enzymes in which a second protein that binds to the active site on the enzyme can also help stabilize the area. In other words, these allosteric proteins help stabilize and stabilize the active site and allow the enzyme to bind to substrates.

Here’s what Wikipedia has to say:
A class of allosteric co-activators (or co-activators) are so named because they are chemoenzymatic molecules that hold a functional surface area on their catalytic domains that enable them to act cooperatively with other similar molecules on their target proteins. These molecules mediate protein-protein interaction by binding non-covalently with target proteins, where they regulate protein function by modifying its shape, conformation, or both.

Allosteric enzymes are essential in several pathways and can also be found in cells. They may be found in either intracellular or extracellular media. They can either interact directly with proteins at the active site of an enzyme or indirectly through interactions with other co-activators or co-factors.

7. Allosteric enzymes are implicated in the development of disease.

This is a quote from the book “Nature’s Enzymes” by Dr. Phillip Verleger and Douglas V. Posada.
Allosteric enzymes are proteins with a specific affinity for their substrate that allows them to fulfill the function of the amino acid in much simpler ways than classical enzymes do. Because these proteins are more complex and interact more, they are less effective at activating or detaching from their substrate than classical enzymes.

This weakens their activity, but it also makes them very hard to detect by traditional means of detection because they do not require covalent modification of the amino acid to activate or detach from their substrate.
Allosteric enzymes include:

Glycogen synthase (GS) – this enzyme converts glucose into glycogen, which can be used as energy storage (glucose-6-phosphate [G6P] is the most abundant glucose-6-phosphate; G6P can be converted into dihydroxyacetone phosphate [DHAP], which is subsequently converted into glycogen)

Glucokinase (GK) – converts glucose into glucose-1-phosphate (which can be used as an energy source), or it converts glucose-1,6-bisphosphate into fructose 6-bisphosphatase (F2BP), which is then converted into fructose 1,6biphosphatase [FIBP]

Phosphofructokinase – converts fructose 2,6bto form fructose 1,4bto form Fructose 1,8balkyl phosphate [FBP], which is then further converted to Fructose 6bpyrophosphotransferase (FTPT), which can be used as an energy source

Inositol phosphates – this enzyme converts inositol phosphate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEPCK), which can be used as a fuel source.

Many allosteric enzymes have been implicated in human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Huntington’s chorea, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. It was discovered that certain allosteric enzymes interact with particular neurotransmitters and regulate neuronal excitability through allosteric mechanisms; therefore–the same neurotransmitter(s) but different allosteric protein(s). If these neurotransmitters are affected by changes in allosteric modulators/ac

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