I was interested in reading about the current state of knowledge on enzymes and what could be accomplished to enhance the lives of people with various diseases. I found this article by Paul Jaminet, a biochemist at the University of California, Davis, which included information on cell-based approaches to enzymology and an exploration of how enzymes can be developed for therapeutic purposes.
The details contained in this article are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult your doctor, who is knowledgeable in enzyme therapy, before attempting any treatment.
2. What are enzymes?
An enzyme is any chemical substance that can chemically change the structure of another molecule.
Some enzymes are found in every cell of your body, and they do important things daily. Some are only found in a few specialized cells, such as those that produce hormones and immune cells. But there are thousands of enzymes throughout your body, all working together to ensure your body functions properly.
There are over 1000 different enzymes in your body, many of which are involved in hundreds of other processes in the human body – some even going as far as to help the body heal itself!
Some of these enzymes perform crucial functions for us every single day. They help us digest food, remove toxins from our bodies, and heal wounds quickly (remember how you learned about red blood cells?). Enzymes also keep our kidneys functioning properly and help us maintain a healthy heartbeat; without them, none of this would be possible!
Enzymes aren’t just found within our bodies; they’re also everywhere around us – including on our computers, smartphones, and tablets. They’re used by millions of people around the world each day to do simple tasks like search for information on the internet or send emails or text messages.
3. Enzymes as catalysts
Enzymes are structures that help in the reaction of an enzyme to a substrate. They are also called enzymes, specific catalysts, or enzymes making reactions happen.
Enzymes are generally divided into two types; those that catalyze reactions and those that don’t. Both types can have one or both of the following features; they either make more products from the same reactant or create new products from the reactant.
The type of enzyme affects its effect to a certain degree in the reaction it catalyzes. For example, a protein cannot perform this function if it’s not made up of proteins at all; it will just be pure sugar molecules (glucose).
Another example is if you put a different kind of enzyme together with glucose, you won’t get the same reaction as when you used glucose alone (by itself). However, enzymes that act by catalyzing reactions other than their own are ubiquitous; they are called “catalytic enzymes” because they do something to facilitate another process and aren’t made up of protein molecules.
4. The role of enzymes
Enzymes are what kind of molecules? What else can be found in available enzymes? What kind of molecules? What else can be found in biology? In chemistry?
Enzymes are what kind of molecules? What else can be found in biology? In chemistry?
You’ve got to wonder when the saying “protein is a molecule” was coined. You wouldn’t say that about a car, would you? And you certainly wouldn’t say it about a computer.
What are we dealing with here, though? Enzymes. Enzymes are what kinds of molecules.
They’re not just one thing or another; they’re a category of molecules that our cells wouldn’t function at all without them. They account for the vast majority of protein structure and play a role in every protein function: synthesis, degradation, transport, and catalysis (the catalytic effect). They even help us remember things: if we forgot how to count at age two (ahem), we couldn’t do it anymore at age five because our body had to rely on enzymes to do its job; once again, enzymes.
They also play their part in certain types of diseases. For example, if we got into an accident and lost part of our heart muscle (which happens more often than you might think), suddenly having our liver cells produce pancreatic enzymes would save us from being tetanus-infested.
We don’t know how many proteins there are on the planet (or even where they’re all located). So let’s assume that there are roughly as many as there are stars in the sky.* That’s probably an over-simplified assumption because biochemistry isn’t precisely like astrophysics but whatever
To give you an idea: Our body makes around 3 billion pounds of protein daily*. It’s a relatively huge number, given that the average person has only 800 grams of protein per day (1 gram equals 1/6 an ounce). But consider this: A person who eats ONE pound per day will get around 7 million calories per day*. So roughly 7 million people eat more than twice as much meat as food from plants. *Raw stats. That means every person eats more meat than cereal daily, which is pretty gross! Imagine that those same people were eating rice or beans instead, which would still be awful. I’m
5. Factors that affect enzyme activity
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules. I will talk about all living organisms’ most common enzymatic functions. Still, for a complete understanding, it’s essential to understand the role enzymes play in every cell and every system in the body.
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules. They are what allows us to do the job that we do. They enable our bodies to function correctly and serve as catalysts that allow us to metabolize certain compounds into more valuable compounds.
For example, one enzyme is responsible for breaking down fats into fatty acids; another breaks down fats into essential fatty acids via a process called fatty acid oxidation which helps restore energy balance; yet another breaks down carbohydrates into glucose which is used by cells to produce energy, and yet another is responsible for turning ester-producing compounds (such as proline) into neurotransmitters (such as serotonin) which play a vital role in our moods.
Enzymes are found throughout your body, and all living organisms on Earth can employ some enzyme activity; however, most enzyme function remains unknown to us because most enzymes aren’t active when we need them. Two major groups of enzymes appear those inside mitochondria (the tiny organelles within cells) and those inside other cells (for example, those in muscles or neurons). Enzymes can be classified according to how they work with their substrates:
A) Substrates bind an enzyme’s active site onto the oxidized molecule. B) The reaction occurs at a static site on the enzyme C) The resulting product is released from the active site once the substrate has been consumed. D) Enzymes have binding sites outside their active sites e) Enzymes have no active sites themselves f) Enzymes have no substrate-specific sites g) The products of enzymatic reactions have no structural similarity with their initial substrates h) There is no capability for biological catalysts i) There is only one type of substrate j) The reaction only occurs at one temperature k ) Only single products can be formed.
6. Enzyme inhibition
Enzymes are just a fancy way of saying that they’re catalysts. They help you do something by doing it for you. Your body has enzymes. Your liver has enzymes. Your brain has enzymes. You use them to do different things: digest your food, digest the chemicals from your brain, make antibodies to fight off infections, and so on.
But what about all the others? What about those missing catalysts? Are these the ones that are missing from your liver, your brain, and your stomach? How does this work to suppress them? The short answer is that they’re hidden because they don’t do what we want them to do.
So we have enzymes in place to break up our molecules into their most minor components so they can be processed into the molecules needed for us to live and thrive.
However, sometimes these tiny molecules get jammed up somehow (perhaps from an infection), causing small enzyme inhibitors to kill these enzymes with some chemical reaction or even an enzymatic poison — a type of toxin or poison of some sort that does not usually occur in nature but can be produced by certain types of microbes (for example, E Coli).
These inhibitors include:
-Nitrotyrosine (NTX) (nitrosoindoylglycine) (NOAA’s) (NOAplasmathes) -Phenylalanine ammonia sulfoxides (PARSOx) -(Aspartate aminotransferase -Aspartate aminotransferase-aminotransferase enolase (AST)–glutamate oxaloacetate synthetase (“GOT” enzyme)–glutamine synthetase (“GNP” enzyme)–glutamine synthetase (“GNP” enzyme)–glutamate oxaloacetate synthetase (“GOT” enzyme)
–glutamine synthetase (“GNP” enzyme)–glutamine synthetase (“GNP” enzyme)–glutamate oxaloacetate synthetase (“GOT” enzyme)–glutamate oxaloacetate synthetase– glutamic acid decarboxylase “GGD”)– glutamic acid decarboxylase “GGD”)– glutamate
In this article, I’ll cover enzymes in general terms of what they are and why they are essential.
I will first dive into enzyme definition and why it is essential. In a nutshell, enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions in the body. They do so by changing their shape or folding up to do different things depending on their actions.
For example, one enzyme called ATP synthase is responsible for the efficient conversion of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This process is responsible for producing energy in cells. Another enzyme called phosphorylase A converts ADP to ATP faster than any other molecule in the body.
This method permits partitions to get rid of excess energy and excess carbon dioxide that builds up during metabolic processes and helps maintain a certain amount of blood pH (hydrochloric acid) within the range of 7.35–7.45 due to the presence of buffers such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and phosphate ions (inorganic molecules with an +3 charge).